Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Self-Reported Cases of Child Abuse and their Effect on Emergency Department Attendance in Jamaica

Paul Andrew Bourne

Abstract


Introduction:  Child abuse is a global pandemic and its effects range from minor to severe, with the matter influencing the psychosocial state of both the child and parent(s).

Objectives: This study seeks to 1) determine sex ratios for child abuse cases in Jamaica for 2007-2014; 2) examine whether there are differences in self-reported cases of child abuses in Jamaica by gender and typology of abuses for 2007-2014; 3) compute the child abuse rate in Jamaica based on children population from 2007-2014; and 4) evaluate the effect of self-reported cases of child abuse on the use of general hospitals’ emergency departments. Focus will be made on three selected public hospitals in Jamaica for 2007 to 2014.

Results: In 2007, the number of children reportedly abused was 78.9 per 100,000. The following year (i.e. 2008), the rate of abused children increased significantly by 770% (to 428.7 children per 100,000 children population).  Over the subsequent years there was a 56.6% increase (to 671.4 children per 100,000 children population). Overall, using total sex ratio, child abuse is a feminized phenomenon in Jamaica, with the worst gender disparity occurring in 2011 (i.e. sex ratio = 59.20). It means that of the total number of reported cases of child abuse in 2011, 59.2 were males for every 100 females, which speaks to the preponderance of acts committed against female children compared to male children in the nation.

Conclusions: The reality is, child abuse—sexual and physical abuse of children in Jamaica—is now at a pandemic stage and while we understand that this matter has been exponentially rising in the last four years of the studied period, the psychological effects are profound as it relates to well-being of parents and unborn children.

KEYWORDS: Child Abuse, Child Maltreatment, Emergency department utilization, Neglect.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Akinware, M.A. & Ojomo, A.A. (1993). Child Rearing Practices and Their Associated Beliefs in Nigeria: A paper based on the baseline studies conducted in five local government areas in Nigeria. UNICEF (1987-1990). Paper presented at the workshop on childrearing practices and beliefs, Windhoek, Namibia, October 26-29, 1993.

Alphonso, A., Auerbach, M., Bechtel, K., Bilodeau, K., Gawel, M., Koziel, J., Whitfill, T., & Tiyyagura, G.K. (2016). Development of a Child Abuse Checklist to Evaluate Prehospital Provider Performance. Prehosp Emerg Care, 1-6 [Epub ahead of print]. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27700209, accessed on October 10, 2016.

Amado, B.G., Arce, R., & Herraiz, A. (2015). Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Intervention, 24, 49-62.

Barrow C, & Reddock R, (eds). (2001). Caribbean sociology: Introductory Readings. Kingston: Ian Randle, Markus Wiener, & James Currey.

Bass, J.K., Annan, J., McIvor Murray S., Kaysen, D., Griffiths, S., Cetinoglu, T., Wachter, K., Murray, L.K., & Bolton, P.A. (2013). Controlled trial of psychotherapy for Congolese survivors of sexual violence. N Engl J Med, 368:2182–91.

Blake J. (1961). Family structure in Jamaica: the Social Context of Reproduction. New York: Free Press.

Booth, B.M., Mengeling, M., Torner, J., & Sadler, A.G. (2011). Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans. J Trauma Stress, 24:287-94.

Boszormenyi-Nagy, K. (1986). Between Give and Take. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Bourne, P.A. (2010). Factor Differentials in contraceptive use and demographic profile among females who had their first coital activity at most 16 years versus those at 16+ years old in a developing nation. Int J Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Publ Health, 2(11):378-402.

Bourne, P.A. (2011). Sociodemographic correlates of age at sexual debut among women of the reproductive years in a middle-income developing nation. HealthMED Journal, 5(1):1-17.

Bourne, P.A., & Hudson-Davis, A (2016) Does Homicide Influence Psychiatric Hospitalization to a Mental Health Facility? A Mathematical Approach. J Ment Disord Treat 2: 109.

Bourne, P.A., Hudson-Davis, A., Sharpe-Pryce, C., Francis, C., Solan, I., & Nelson, S. (2015a). Homicide, rape and carnal abuse in Jamaica, 1970-2013: The New Health Pandemics. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17(2):588-597.

Bourne, P.A., Hudson-Davis, A., Sharpe-Pryce, C., Solan, I., Nelson, S., Smith, L., George, M., Brown, L., Julian, C., & Francis, C. (2015b). Rape, carnal abuse and marriage in Jamaica, 1970-2013: Is there non-consensual sex in marriage? World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(11):199-230.

Bourne, P.A., Irving, R., Hudson-Davis, A., Sharpe, P., Solan, I.,…Gibson, T. (2016). Male-child abuse and economics: A pharmacoeconomic and psychological approach. World Journal of Pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 5(1): 1490-1513.

Bourne, P.A., Sharpe-Pryce, C., Francis, C., Hudson-Davis, A., Solan, I., Lewis, D., Watson-Coleman, O., & Blake, J-A. (2015). Women Promiscuity and Reproductive Health Matters: Findings and Policy Implications. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17(1): 224-233.

Bourne, PA. (2011). Re-Visiting the Crime-and-Poverty Paradigm: An Empirical Assessment with Alternative Perspectives. Current Research Journal of Economic Theory 3(4): 99-117.

Bourne, R. & Newberger, E.H. (1980). Interdisciplinary group process in the hospital management of child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse Negl, 4:137-144.

Bromfield, L. M. (2005). Chronic child maltreatment in an Australian statutory child protection sample (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Deakin University, Geelong.

Bromfield, L., & Higgins, D. (2005). National comparison of child protection systems (Child Abuse Prevention Issues No. 22). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved from https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/national-comparison-child-protection-systems, accessed on October 11, 2016.

Brown, D.W., Riley, L., Butchart, A., Meddings, D.R., Kann, L., & Harvey, A.P. (2009). Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey. Bull World Health Organ, 87:447–55.

Brown, R. (2000). Group processes: Dynamics within and between groups, 2nd ed. London: Blackwell Publishing.

Campbell, D.T. (1958). Common fate, similarity, and other indices of the status of aggregates of persons as social entities. Behavioural Science, 3: 14-25.

Campbell, K.A., Olson, L. M., Keenan, H.T. & Morrow, S.L. (2016). What happened next: Interviews with mothers after a finding of child maltreatment in the household. Qual Health Res, Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26786952, accessed on October 11, 2016.

Campbell, R., Dworkin, E., & Cabral, G. (2009). An ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women’s mental health. Trauma Violence Abuse 2009; 10:225-46.

Chen LP, Murad MH, Paras ML, Colbenson, K.M., Sattler, A.L., Goranson, E.N., Elamin, M.B., Seime, R.J., Shinozaki, G., Prokop, L.J., & Zirakzadeh. A. (2010). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc, 85:618-29.

Chivers-Wilson, K.A. (2006). Sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the biological, psychological and sociological factors and treatments. McGill J Med, 9:111-8.

Christoffel, K. K., Scheidt, P. C., Agran, P. F., Kraus, J. F., McLoughlin, E., & Paulson, J. A. (1992). Standard definitions for childhood injury research: Excerpts of a conference report. Pediatrics, 89(6), 1027-1034.

Chung, M.C. & Chen, Z.S. (2016). Child Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity Among Chinese Adolescents: Emotional Processing as Mediator and PTSD from Past Trauma as Moderator. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev, [Ahead of print]. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27704299, accessed on October 10, 2016.

Clark, E. (1957). My Mother who Fathered Me: A study of the family in three selected communities in Jamaica. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Coser, Lewis and Rosenberg, Bernard. (1957). Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Second Edition. The McMillan Company, New York.

Curtin, G.C. (1963). Violence breeds violence-perhaps? American Journal of Psychiatry, 120:386-387.

DeGue, S., Valle, L.A., Holt, M.K., Massetti, G.M., Matjasko, J.L., & Tharp AT. (2014). A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. Aggress Violent Behav, 19:346–62.

Easson, W.M. & Steinhilber, R.N. (1961). Murderous aggression by children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4:47-55.

Ellis H. (1992). Identifying crime correlates in a developing society: A study of socio-economic and socio-demographic contributions to crime in Jamaica, 1950-84. New York: Peter Lang.

Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2007). Poly-victimization: A neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 7-26.

Fowler, D.R., Cantos, A.L. & Miller, S.A. (2016). Exposure to violence, typology, and recidivism in a probation sample of domestic violence perpetrators. Child Abuse Negl, 59:66-77.

Georges, J. (2003). Family: Variations and changes across cultures. In W.J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S.A. Hayes & D.N. Sattler. (eds.), online readings in psychology and culture (Unit 13, Chapter 3), Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA.

Giddens, A. (1982). Contemporary Social Theory. Basingstoke, London: Macmillan Press.

Giddens, A. (1986). Sociology – A brief but critical introduction. London: Macmillan Press.

Giddens, A. (1993). Sociology. London: Polity Press.

Gilbert, R., Spatz Widom, C., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., & Janson, J. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. Lancet, 373, 68-81.

Golden, R.L., Furman, W., & Collibee, C. (2016). The risks and rewards of sexual debut. Dev Psychol,[Epub ahead of print]. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709996, accessed on October 10, 2016.

Gordon, D. (1987). Class, Status and Social Mobility in Jamaica. Kingston: Institute of Social and Economic Research, UWI, Jamaica.

Government of Jamaica. (2011). Sexual Offences Act. Retrieved from http://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/files/laws/Sexual%20Offences%20Act.pdf, accessed on October 10, 2016.

Greenfield S. (1966). English Rustics in Black Skin: A Study of Modern family forms in a Pre-Industrial Society. New Haven, Conn., College and University Press.

Hannerz, U. (1967). Soulside: Inquiries into ghetto culture and community. New York: Columbia University Press.

Haralambus, M and Holborn, M (2002), Sociology: Themes and Perspective; London; University Tutorial Press

Harriott, A.D. & Jones, M. (2016). Crime and Violence in Jamaica. Technical Note No IDB-TN 1060. Retrieved from https://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/handle/11319/7773/Crime-and-Violence-in-Jamaica-IDB-Series-on-Crime-and-Violence-in-the-Caribbean.pdf?sequence=4, accessed on October 12, 2016.

Herrenkohl, T.I. & Jung, H. E. (2016). Effects of child abuse, adolescent violence, peer approval and pro-violence attitudes on intimate partner violence in adulthood. Crim Behav Ment Health, 26(4): 304-314.

Inkeles, A. (1964). What is sociology? An introduction to the discipline and profession. Englewood Cliff, New Jersey, U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall.

Jamaica Observer. (2016, May 13). 16,790 cases of sexual abuse against children recorded in eight years. Retrieved from http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/16-790-cases-of-sexual-abuse-against-children-recorded-in-eight-years, accessed on October 10, 2016.

Jamaican Ministry of Health. (2007-2014). Statistics on attendance to A&E at government and quasi-government hospitals in Jamaica. Kingston: MoH.

Jespersen, A.F., Lalumière, M.L, & Seto, M.C. (2009). Sexual Abuse History Among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal. 33(3): 179-192.

Jones, R. (2015, February 8). Stolen childhood-sexual abuse a harsh reality for hundreds of Jamaican children. Kingston: Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved from http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20150208/lead/lead4.html, accessed on October 10, 2016.

Kerr, M.E. & Bowen, M. (1988). Family Evaluation. New York: Norton.

King, C.H. (1975). The ego and the integration of violence in homicidal youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 45:134-135.

Kuay, H.S., Lee, S., Centifanti, L.C., Parnis, A.C., Mrozik, J.H. & Tiffin, P.A. (2016). Adolescents as perpetrators of aggression within the family. Int J Law Psychiatry, 47:60-7.

Laccino, L. (2014). Child Sexual Abuse: Top 5 Countries with highest rates. Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/child-sexual-abuse-top-5-countries-highest-rates-1436162, accessed October 10, 2016.

Leaman, A.M., Holt, A., & Ramakrishnan, R.G. (2010). Emergency department attendance by children at risk of abuse. Emerg Med J, 27(1): 26-8.

Leo-Rhynie, E. (1993). The Jamaica Family: Continuity and Change. Kingston: Grace, Kennedy Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.gracekennedy.com/images/lecture/GKF1993Lecture.pdf, accessed on November 6, 2016.

Lewin, K. (1948). Resolving Social Conflict. New York: Harper and Row.

Macionis, JJ. & Plummer, K. (1998). Sociology. New York: Prentice Hall, New York.

Mandelli, L., Petrelli, C., & Serretti, A. (2015). The role of specific early trauma in adult depression: a meta-analysis of published literature. Childhood trauma and adult depression. European Psychiatry, 30, 665-680.

Martinez, W., Polo, A.J., & Zelic, K.J. (2014). Symptom variation on the trauma symptom checklist for children: a within-scale meta-analytic review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 655-663.

Mattessich, P. & Hill, R. (1987). Life Cycle and Family Development. In: M.B. Sussman and S.K. Steinmetz, eds. Handbook of marriage and the family. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 437-470.

McIntosh, I. (1997). Classical Sociological Theory. Section 1, Washington Square, New York, New York University Press.

McKenzie H, & McKenzie H. (1971). The Caribbean Family. Workshop – Family Life Education July 19-31, 1971. Kingston; Bureau of Health Education, Ministry of Health, Kingston, Jamaica.

Mimiaga, M.J., Noonan, E., Donnell, D., Safren, S.A., Koenen, K.C., Gortmaker, S., O'Cleirigh C., Chesney, M.A., Coates, T.J., Koblin, B.A, & Mayer, K.H. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse is highly associated with HIV risk-taking behavior and infection among MSM in the EXPLORE Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 51:340–8.

Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and Family Theraphy. Cambridge: Harvard Univeristy Press.

Noll, J.G., Zeller, M.H., Trickett, P.K., & Putnam, F.W. (2007). Obesity risk for female victims of childhood sexual abuse: a prospective study. Pediatrics, 120:e61–7.

Norman, R. E., Byambaa, M., De, R., Butchart, A., Scott, J., & Vos, T. (2012). The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Library of Science Medicine, 9(11), 1-31.

Office of Children Registry. (2007-2014). Statistics on Child Abuse in Jamaica, 2006-2014. Retrieved from http://www.ocr.gov.jm/index.php/statistics, accessed on August 21, 2016.

Office of the Children’s Registry. (2014). General Information 2014. Retrieved from http://www.ocr.gov.jm/index.php/statistics, accessed on October 10, 2016.

Parsons, T. (1951). The social systems. London: The Free Press of Glencoe.

Pittman, J.F. & Lee, C-Y.S. (2004). Comparing different types of child abuse and spouse abuse offenders.Violence and Victims, 19(2): 137-156.

Plummer, M. & Cossins, A. (2016). The Cyle of Abuse: When victims become offenders. Trauma Violence Abuse. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27436859, accessed on October 11, 2016.

Rabbie, J.M. & Horwitz, M. (1988). Categories versus groups as explanatory concepts in intergroup relations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18:117-23.

Rakovec-Felser, Z. & Vidovic, L. (2016). Maternal perception of a responses to child sexual abuse: Materin Pogled in Odziv Na Spolno Zlorabo Otroka. Zdr Varst., 55(2):114-20.

Resick, P.A. (1993). The psychological impact of rape. J Interpers Violence 1993; 8:223-55.

Richmond, J. M., Elliot, A. N., Pierce, T. W., Aspelmeier, J. E., & Alexander, A. A. (2009). Polyvictimization, childhood victimization, and psychological distress in college women. Child Maltreatment, 14(2), 127-147.

Rind, B. & Welter, M. (2016). Reactions to First Postpubertal Male Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors With Peers, Minors With Adults, and Adults With Adults. Arch Sex Behav, 45(7): 1771-86.

Ritzer, G. (1992). Contemporary Sociological Theory. New York, McGraw-Hill, USA.

Rivinus, T.M., Levoy, D., Matzko, M., & Seifer R. (1992). Hospitalized children of substance-abusing parents and physically and sexually abused children: a comparison. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 31(6):1019-23.

Rodman H. (1971). Lower class families: The cultures of Poverty in Negro Trinidad. London: Oxford University press.

Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., & Twaite, J. (2006). Understanding, assessing, and treating adult victims of childhood abuse. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Rohde, P., Ichikawa, L., Simon, G., Ludman, E., Linde, J., Jeffrey, R. et al. (2008). Associations of child sexual and physical abuse with obesity and depression in middle-aged women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 878-887.

Rovi, S., Chen, P.-H., & Johnson, M. S. (2004). The Economic Burden of Hospitalizations Associated With Child Abuse and Neglect. American Journal of Public Health, 94(4), 586–590.

Sachs-Ericsson, N., Cromer, K., Hernandez, A., & Kendall-Tackett, K. (2009). A review of childhood abuse, health, and pain-related problems: The role of psychiatric-disorders and current life stress. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 10(2), 170-188.

Sendi, I.B., & Blomgren, P.G. (1975). A comparative study of predictive criteria in the predisposition of homicidal adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry 132:423-427.

Siqurvinsdottir, R. & Ullman, S.E. (2016). Sexual orientation, Race, and Trauma as Predictors of Sexual Assault Recovery. J Fam Violence, 31(7): 913-921.

Small, M.L. (2002). Culture, cohort, and social organization theory: Understanding local participation in a Latino Housing Project. American Journal of Sociology, 108:1-54.

Smith MG. (1962). West Indian Family Structure. Seattle and London, University of Washington Press.

Smith RT. (1973). The Matrifocal Family in J. Goody The Character of Kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, J.A., & Adler, R.G. (1991).Children hospitalized with child abuse and neglect: A case-control study. Child Abuse Negl, 15(4): 437-45.

Springer, K., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 517-530.

Thomas, C., Hypponen, E., & Power, C. (2008). Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in mid-adult life: The role of childhood adversity. Pediatrics, 121, 1240-1249.

Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2006). Extent, nature, and consequences of rape victimization: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey: special report. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2006 (http://www.nij.gov/pubs-sum/ 210346.htm).

Tomison, A.M. (2000). Exploring family violence: Links between child maltreatment and domestic violence. Australian Institute of Family Studies, 13. Retrieved from https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/exploring-family-violence-links-between-child-maltreatment, accessed on October 11, 2016.

UNICEF. (2014). Convention on the rights of the child: Protecting children’s rights. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_protecting.html, accessed on October 10, 2016.

UNICEF. (2016). Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: Sexual Violence against Children. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58006.html, accessed on October 11, 2016.

UNICEF. (ud). The Convention of the Rights of the Child Protection rights: Keeping safe from harm. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Protection_list.pdf, accessed on October 10, 2016.

United Nations (UN) and World Bank. (2007). Crime, Violence, and Development: Trends, Costs, and Policy Options in the Caribbean, Report No. 37820. New York: UN and World Bank.

Unlu, G. & Cakaloz, B. (2016). Effects of perpetrators identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 12:1489-97.

Wallace, R.A., & Wolf, A. (1999). Contemporary sociological theory, expanding the classical tradition, (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, U.S.A.: Prentice Hall.

Wegman, H. L., & Stetler, C. (2009). A meta-analytic review of the effects of childhood abuse on medical outcomes in adulthood. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 805-812.

Widom, C.S. (1989). Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 106(1): 3-28.

World Health Organization. (2016a). Sexual and reproductive health: Sexual Violence. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/violence/sexual_violence/en/, accessed on October 10, 2016.

World Health Organization. (2016b, September). Child Maltreatment. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs150/en/, accessed on October 12, 2016.

Yampolskaya, S., Greenbaum, P.E. & Berson, I.R. (2009). Profiles of Child Maltreatment Perpetrators and Risk for Fatal Assault: A Latent Class Analysis.Journal of Family Violence, 24(5): 337-348.

Young, M.D., Deardorff, J., Ozer, E., & Lahiff, M. (2011) Sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence and the risk of early pregnancy among women ages 18-22. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49, 287-293.

Zou, H., Xu, J., Hu, Q., Yu, Y., Fu, G., Wang, Z., Lu, L., Zhuang, M., Chen, X., Fu, J., Zhou, Z., Geng, W., Jiang, Y., & Shang, H. (2016). Decreasing age at first anal intercourse among men who have sex with men in China: a multicentre cross-sectional survey.J Int AIDS Soc.19 (1):20792.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Editor in Chief

Dr. Pradeep Chaudhary

KMC, Department of medicine,

jneh@brainybuzz.in

Journal of Nursing Education and Health


Senior  Deputy Editor

Dr. N.S. Neki

MD , DTN & H, MNAMS, FRCP (Edin),FRCP(Ire), FRCP(Glas), FRCP(London), FCCP(USA), FACC(USA), FACP (USA), FACE(USA), FESC, FICP, FGSI, FRSM(London), FNCCP , FICN, FACN(USA), FSCH(Ind), FFICC, FAMS, FISE, FIAE, FISHM, FAGE, FIMSA, FIACM, FIMAMS, FCGP, FRSPH(UK), FRSA(UK), FCCP(Tro-Pul), FCCP(Tro-card), FCIP, FAGE, FIAMR

Prof. of Medicine, Govt.Medical College, Amritsar (India)

Visiting Professor, James Cook University Hospital, UK & School of medicine, health&pharmacy, DURHAM, UK

Visiting Professor, University of Mannitoba, Institute of cardiovascular sciences, St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, WINNIPEG, CANADA

Patron, Indian Association Of Clinical Cardiologists

Fellow Endocrinology, P.G.I., Chandigarh

 

Deputy Editor

Dr. Prafulla M Sabale, M. Pharmacy, Ph. D.

 

Associate Editor

Dr. Magda Bayoumi

Lecturer at Medical Surgical Nursing,

Beni Suef University, Egypt